Dough Conditioner Ingredients
What are Dough Conditioner Ingredients?
Dough conditioners are natural or chemical-origin ingredients that are used in baking formulations. They can improve flour baking performance and produce high-quality baked goods with extended shelf-life while maintaining consistent production processes.
The major groups of dough conditioning ingredients are:
- Emulsifiers (dough strengtheners and crumb softeners)
- Oxidizing agents
- Reducing agents
Dough conditioning ingredients have been available to the food industry for decades. They were originally introduced to mitigate variations in flour and yeast quality and tight production schedules.
Back in the ‘50s, baking processes relied exclusively on the quality and quantity of gluten-forming proteins of wheat flours to produce baked goods. Consistency on a day-to-day and batch to batch basis was more than a challenge due to wheat crop changeover and variations in wheat blends from mills, among other factors.
The following table summarizes the function of major dough conditioning ingredients:1,2,3
|Group||Ingredient||Mechanism and effect|
|Emulsifiers – dough strengtheners||
|Emulsifiers – crumb softeners||
Dough conditioning ingredients are considered additives; they are often used to compensate for inadequacies in baking formulations and processing issues. Aspects such as consumer perception, clean label trends, cost and regulatory limits are factors of immense importance when incorporating them into baked products.
Process parameters such as mixing tolerance/stability, water absorption capacity, gassing power (i.e. fermentation capacity), gas retention and dough rheology can be modified by dough conditioners.
Among all available dough conditioners, enzymes are favored in clean label applications. However, issues such as purity (side reactions and secondary activity) and ensuring complete inactivation during baking can be critical for bakeries. When supplying enzymes, it is a good practice to conduct baking tests and lab analysis to ensure optimum results.
|Enzymes||According to 21 CFR Part 184 (Direct Food Substances Affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe), these ingredients can be used in food in amounts sufficient for
the purpose, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practices.
|Emulsifiers – Dough strengtheners||According to 21 CFR Parts 172, 182 and 184, some are limited only by good manufacturing practices; others are allowed at levels required to produce the intended effect. Some may also have specified limits on their use.|
|Emulsifiers – Crumb softeners|
|Oxidizing agents||According to 21 CFR Parts 170, 182 and 184, most oxidizing agents have limits on their use in food products.|
|Reducing agents||According to 21 CFR Parts 170, 182 and 184, most reducing agents are GRAS given their natural origin.|
- Van Oort, M. “Enzymes in Bread Making.” Enzymes in Food Technology, 2nd edition, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010, pp. 103–143.
- Smith, J., and Hong-Shum, L. Food Additives Data Book, 2nd edition, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2011.
- Stauffer, C.E. “Bakery Products.” Emulsifiers, Eagan Press Handbook Series, AACC International, Inc., 1991, pp. 47–66.
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “21 CFR 182 – Direct Food Substances Affirmed As Generally Recognized As Safe.” 1 Apr. 2017, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182. Accessed 2 December 2018.
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “21 CFR 184 – Direct Food Substances Affirmed As Generally Recognized As Safe.” 1 Apr. 2017, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=184. Accessed 2 December 2018.