Non-Fat Dried Milk (NFDM)
What is Non-Fat Dried Milk?
NFDM is a powdery substance remaining after dairy cream and water has been removed from milk.
NFDM is a by-product of cream and butter production from diary cows.
NFDM is favored over fresh milk because if its long shelf life, the ease of transportation and dispensing. To convert dry milk to a liquid form, one must simply add water and blend. In baking, any recipe calling for milk as an ingredient can be substituted by NFDM.
NFDM has many different functions and capabilities in baking. Such as a desirable browning capability, via the maillard reaction, due to the presence of lactose (a reducing sugar) and milk proteins. Other functions and capabilities includes:
- The proteins within the NFDM has emulsification properties, resulting in structure and stability.
- Within cakes and frozen desserts, NFDM is utilized for its foaming capability.
- NFDM is water binding, improving texture and increasing viscosity in batter and dough, thereby enhancing mouthfeel.
- NFDM adds a hint of dairy flavor when utilized in baking applications, improving the aroma profile of the baked good.
As only the water and cream are removed, all nutritional value otherwise still remains intact such as the sugar naturally found in milk, the proteins, and vitamins as well as minerals.
NFDM can be stored at room temperature for several months without degrading. If exposed to moisture, NFDM will clump together due to its hygroscopic nature. Once NFDM has been converted to a fluid form via the addition of water, refrigeration is necessary for stability.
Three types of NFDM are utilized within the food and baking industry, categorized by their method of heat treatment during processing.
- High Heat NFDM: Least soluble variety processed at 190˚F for a half hour. Utilized primarily in dry mixes, baked goods, and meat items.
- Medium Heat NFDM: Processed at temperatures160˚F to 175˚F for approximately 20 minutes. Used typically in desserts, confectionaries, and dry mixes.
- Low Heat NFDM: The most common and functional form of dry milk powder. It is exposed to heat at 160˚F for equal to or less than 2 minutes. Used primarily in cottage cheese, chocolate dairy beverages, and frozen desserts.