How it is made
White pan bread can be produced with various dough systems, including:
White pan bread formulation
Providing sufficient time for fermentation prior to dough mixing is critical to producing optimum quality, texture and shelf-life of white pan bread. The following formula uses the sponge and dough system:
Sponge (70% flour pre-fermentation):
||Baker’s % (based on flour weight)
|Patent or bread flour
|Mineral yeast food (MYF)
*Hydration level, based on the weight of flour used in the sponge
**Yeast amount for an 8-hour sponge fermentation
Dough formulation (62% total hydration):
||Baker’s % (based on flour weight)
|Patent (bread) flour
|Sugar (refined, granulated sucrose)
|Oil / shortening / butter
|Nonfat dry milk (heat-treated)
|Clean label dough conditioner mix*
|Vital wheat gluten
||0.1 (1000 ppm)
*Crumb softeners, dough strengtheners, enzymes, redox agents
- Sponge preparation
- Ingredients scaling.
- Sponge mixing at low speed until homogeneous mixture for 2–4 minutes.
- Sponge fermentation in bulk for 8 hours at room temperature, with 55–65% RH.
- Scaling of dough ingredients
- Dough mixing: Incorporate dough side ingredients and sponge at low speed. Then mix to full gluten development. Desired dough temperature out of mixer is 73–80°F (23–27°C).
- Floor time: Let dough rest for about 15 minutes.
- Intermediate proofing
- Sheeting and moulding
- Final proofing: to full height, at 105–120°F (40–48°C) and RH of 80–85%. Proof times are typically 50–65 minutes.
- Baking: at 400–420°F (204–216°C) to an internal temperature of 204°F (95°C). This usually takes 18–22 minutes. The higher the oven temperature, the shorter the baking time.
- Cooling: to loaf internal temperature of 95–105°F (35–40°C) before packaging.
White pan bread is commercially produced with the straight (no time) dough system. There is a small portion of high-speed bakers, mainly in Europe and Asia, who still use the sponge and dough system to produce high-quality bread.
Specifications for bread flour:
- Class of wheat: hard red spring (HRS), hard red winter (HRW), hard white (HW).
- Protein content: higher than 11.0%.1
- Ash content: 0.45–0.55%.1
- Moisture content: 13.0–14.0%
- Particle size: 120–180 µm (microns).
- Arabinoxylans content: 3.0–3.5%.1
- Damaged starch (DS): 6.0–12.0% (based on total starch in flour). DS becomes a very important parameter as food for yeast in low-sugar white pan breads, and dough systems that make use of long fermentation steps, like sponge and dough.1
- Falling Number (s): 200–300. Sufficient amylase activity to support sponge fermentation without added sugar. Flour with low enzymatic activity (Falling Number > 450 s) should be supplemented with diastatic malt.
Characteristics of white pan bread
- Grain: small (tight) cells, with very thin cell walls. Even cell size distribution.
- Crumb color: bright white or slightly creamy.
- Flavor: slightly sweet, yeasty and aromatic flavor.
- Aroma: slightly yeasty, characteristic of white pan bread.
- Tactile crumb texture: smooth and silky feel. Loaf crumb should be resilient when pressing lightly with the fingers.
- Mouthfeel: moist and soft.
- Loaf volume: large with optimum oven spring. Sufficient rise renders proper break and shred.
- Specific volume (mL/g): 3.0–4.0 (light).
- Break and shred: should be high and fairly smooth, not excessive or rough or bulging.
- Uniformity of shape: symmetrical with a rounded top. Loaf retains a straight and upright position.
- Crust color: well-developed golden-brown color, smooth and even.
- Finnie, S., and Atwell, W.A. “Composition of Commercial Flour.” Wheat Flour, 2nd edition, AACC International, Inc., 2016, pp. 31–48.