Comparison of Dough Systems2019-01-25T16:55:29-08:00

flour preferment

Comparison of Dough Systems


How do you compare dough systems?

Comparing dough systems allows bakers to identify and analyze different aspects of systems. This information helps in identifying the best production process for commercial breadmaking operations. Important aspects that plant managers need to consider are:

  • Plant economics
  • Production flexibility
  • Dough system
  • Batch time
  • Cleaning

How does it work?

Doughs systems are employed in the wholesale production of yeast-leavened bakery products such as white pan bread, whole wheat bread, hamburger and hot dog buns. They usually involve initial stages of the breadmaking process (mixing and fermentation) as well as  amount of ingredient scaled and downstream stages including makeup and final proofing.1

Typical dough systems include:2,3

Application

Given its well-known benefits in terms of finished product quality and its adaptation from retail artisan bakeries to high-speed baking plants, the sponge and dough system (S&D) has become the comparison base or “standard” for other systems.

Using white pan bread formulation, following are critical operational and financial considerations:3,4,5

Sponge and dough

Straight dough bulk fermentation

No-time dough

Flour brew (liquid sponge)

Water brew (broth)

Mixing time 8–11 min (shorter as flour ratio increases) 14–18 min (shorter if salt/sugar are delayed) 14–18 min (shorter if salt/sugar are delayed) 10–14 min (shorter as flour ratio increases) 14–18 min (shorter in high-intensity developer)
Fermentation time 4–5 hours (sponge) 1–3 hours (dough) 0–20 min (floor time for resting) 2–2.5 hours (longer as flour ratio increases) 40–60 min
Total batch time including makeup, baking, cooling) 7–8 hours 5–6 hours 3.5 hours 5–6 hours 4–5 hours
Tolerance to schedule changes or line disruptions Good given long ferment time of sponge Good given Intermediate bulk fermentation time Poor as fermented dough must be
processed immediately
Excellent given presence of holding tank in line Excellent given presence of holding tank in line
Flexibility (making of other baked goods) Excellent Good Poor Good (the more flexible as flour ratio increases) Poor
Cleaning and sanitation of mixer and fermentation equipment Cleaning-out-of-place (COP), Manual cleaning COP, Manual cleaning COP, Manual cleaning CIP CIP
Use of dough conditioners Low Intermediate High Intermediate (decreases as flour ratio increases) High
Control of process  (T°, pH and TTA) Off-line (manual) Off-line (manual) Off-line (manual) In-line instrumentation and manual In-line instrumentation and manual
Initial capital investment (equipment) Intermediate Low Medium given some processes use specialized high-speed mixer High High
Floor space requirements Intermediate (Increased need for equipment and
space to ferment sponges)
Intermediate (Increased need for equipment and
space to ferment doughs)
Low (fermentation equipment) High High
Labor cost High Intermediate Intermediate Low (mechanized and automated line) Low (mechanized and automated line)
Ingredient cost Low Intermediate High (greater use of dough conditioners, yeast, sugar) Intermediate (decreases as flour ratio increases) High (greater use of dough conditioners, yeast, sugar)

Typical characteristics of baked white bread (internal and external):3,4,5

Sponge and dough

Straight dough bulk fermentation

No-time dough

Flour brew (liquid sponge)

Water brew (broth)

Crumb grain Slightly open, some non uniform areas Less open Dense and tight grain, uniform Tight (small cell structure) and more uniform Tight and uniform
Taste and aroma Good/unique
fermentation
flavor and aroma (acidic and fruity notes)
Good fermentation flavor and less strong aroma Mild flavor and weak aroma Good fermentation flavor and aroma
in high flour ferments
Weak flavor and lack of fermentation aroma
Texture (softness) Silk, smooth texture, moist pleasant mouthfeel Good mouthfeel Good mouthfeel (use of dough conditioners) Good mouthfeel (use of dough conditioners) Fair mouthfeel (use of dough conditioners)
Volume, break and shred Standard as template Equivalent to S&D in shorter time (use of dough conditioners) Equivalent to S&D in shorter time (use of dough conditioners) Equivalent to S&D in shorter time (use of dough conditioners) Equivalent to S&D in shorter time (use of dough conditioners)

 

References

  1. Moore, T.R. “Breads.” Encyclopedia of Food Grains, 2nd edition, volume 3, Academic Press, Elsevier Ltd., 2016, pp. 8–17.
  2. Sievert, D., Hoseney, R.C., and Delcour, J.A. “Bread and Other Baked Products.” Ullmann’s Food and Feed, Volume 2, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2017, pp. 462–508.
  3. Cauvain, S.P. “Bread: Breadmaking Processes.” Encyclopedia of Food and Health, volume 1, Academic Press, Elsevier Ltd., 2016, pp. 478–483.
  4. Cauvain, S.P. “Breadmaking: An Overview.” Breadmaking: Improving Quality, 2nd edition, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2012, pp. 9–28.1.
  5. Carson, L. Dough Systems. A Guide On Formulating Sponge and Dough, Preferments and Straight Dough Systems, BAKERpedia, LLC, 2017.

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