No Time Dough
Also known as rapid dough processing or short time dough system
What is No Time Dough?
No time dough is a one-step breadmaking process where all dry ingredients are mixed slowly prior to adding water. Unlike other common dough systems where fermentation lasts for a couple of hours, this process does not call for a specified bulk fermentation time.1
In the no time dough system, gluten development is accomplished by mechanical means (mixing) and the use of dough conditioners and crumb softeners.
The concept of no time or short time dough process became popular in the 1950s and 1960s when global demand for bread started to increase dramatically and the economics of large scale bakers required higher process efficiency.
Similar to the Chorleywood Bread Process in the United Kingdom, the no time dough system became popular among high-speed U.S. bakeries for the manufacture of frozen dough, white pan bread and other bread varieties.
How does it work?
The goal of the no time dough process is to obtain a high quality and standardized bread batch in a very short time (3.5 hours from scaling through packaging—some bakers call this a race against clock), hence complying with unexpected customer orders and high volume markets.
In the no time dough system, the yeast needs all the help it can get to quickly modify the dough physically and chemically. Factors such as supply of yeast food (fermentable sugars), water activity, temperature and pH of dough, become critical.
In order to make the most out of the no time dough systems, some dough composition and process aspects need to be taken into account:1,2,3
- Dough mixing in the horizontal mixer (at fixed energy input) should be long enough to attain proper development (typically 12–18 min).
- Damaged starch in flour is not relevant in the no time dough process unless amylases are used. Since there is not much time for enzymes to gradually convert damaged starch into simple sugars, sucrose and liquid sweeteners will provide nutrients for the yeast food.
- Addition of a dough conditioner mix (0.5–1.0% based on flour weight). The mix should contain a reducing agent, a slow-acting oxidizing agent, emulsifiers (to provide softness to dough and extend bread shelf-life) and enzymes (proteases to reduce dough elasticity and amylases to boost yeast activity and quicken proofing times).
- Addition of extra water (1–3% more compared to straight dough, based on flour weight) to increase dough extensibility and improve machinability. Another goal is to increase yeast activity by lowering osmotic pressure.
- Adjustment of salt and sugar levels may be necessary. To enhance flavor, add 0.1–0.3% more salt. With the higher salt level, more yeast may also be needed to maintain same proofing times.
- Addition of extra yeast (0.5–1.5% more compared to straight dough, based on flour weight) to maintain proofing times and gassing levels comparable to those of the straight dough system.
- In no time doughs, no additional sugars are needed because there is no fermentation. Higher levels of residual sugars may result in a finished product with a darker crust color. To compensate, use 1–2% less sugar.
- To shorten mixing times, it is advisable to delay fat and salt addition to avoid lubrication effect (maintain as much friction in bowl as possible) and allow gluten proteins to quickly hydrate without too much competition for water.
- Flavoring additives such as powdered sours, yeast extracts, sours extracts, and/or flavors, can also be added to enhance flavor.
- Slightly higher temperatures after dough mixing are desirable to boost yeast activity.
- Add acidulants (e.g. MCP, organic acids) to quickly reach optimum pH for yeast activity.
- Reducing agents can also be added to reduce mix time (i.e. time dough takes to attain proper extensibility).
- Cauvain, S.P. “Bread: Breadmaking Processes.” Encyclopedia of Food and Health, Volume 1, Academic Press, Elsevier Ltd., 2016, pp. 478–483.
- Sievert, D., Hoseney, R.C., and Delcour, J.A. “Bread and Other Baked Products.” Ullmann’s Food and Feed, Volume 2, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2017, pp. 462–507.
- Moore, T.R. “Breads.” Encyclopedia of Food Grains, 2nd edition, Volume 3 Grain-Based Products and their Processing, Academic Press, Elsevier Ltd., 2016, pp. 8–18.