The egg is a very nutritive food source used in baking for a variety of functions.


Also known as liquid eggs or egg powder

What is an Egg?

The egg is an essential components of the human diet. It can be boiled, fried or as used as an essential components of many foods and baked products. In addition to improving the nutritional value, eggs provide unique benefits to bakery products:

  • Improved texture
  • Moisture retention
  • Crust color
  • Flavor

Due to their high susceptibility to contamination, eggs are available commercially as pasteurized liquid, dry or frozen:

The following diagram details the different parts:

Different parts of the egg.


Chicken breeding originated in China approximately 3000 years ago. Artificially incubated eggs are believed to have been bred in ancient China and Egypt. However, it wasn’t until the 1870s that this practice was commercialized.1 Ancient Egyptians and Romans recognized eggs' ability to thicken and texturize. They were the first to use domesticated chicken eggs in baking.


In baked products, they perform many functions including:2

  1. Binding: This property is related to their excellent texturizing properties, as well as lecithin’s contribution to its emulsifying capacity. Both characteristics are related to their proteins’ unique molecular structure and flexibility.
  2. Aeration: They produce foams when whipped, essential for volume build up, lightness and smooth mouthfeel. This is specially important for sponge cakes, genoise and angel cakes.
  3. Color and flavor: In baked goods, they provide a desirable yellow color, a characteristic of the yolk carotenoids. Egg proteins also participate in Maillard reactions responsible for desirable flavor and crust browning.

Other attributes include their effect on reduced staling, moistness and surface shine (egg wash), important for desirable organoleptic properties of baked goods.


Component Whole White Yolk
Moisture 76% 88% 50%
Protein 12% 10% 17%
Fat and emulsifiers 10% 0% 30%
Other (sugars and ash) 2% 2% 3%


Eggs contain some of the highest quality proteins. They also contain vitamins, minerals, Omega-3, carotenoids and other antioxidants. However, they're high in fats and cholesterol, which may increase the...

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