Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) is a slow-reacting leavening acid used in baking.

Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate (DCPD)

What is DCPD?

Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) is a leavening acid and source of calcium enrichment. It has a neutralizing value of 33 and is very slow reacting.


DCPD is synthetically produced from calcium carbonate and phosphoric acid.


  • DCPD is extremely slow to react, only releasing CO2 in the last stages of baking, when the product reaches approximately 140°F. This would require a fairly long bake time so DCPD is not used in many products.
  • Typically it would be used in combination with faster acting leavening acids and DCPD would be used to adjust the final pH of a product. It also provides surface cracking on the baked good by producing gas in the last stages of baking.
  • DCPD may also be used as a calcium source for fortified flour/grain products. Due to its slow-acting rates, it is great for frozen and refrigerated doughs.
  • DCPD is high in calcium.


DCPD composition

Chemical structure of DCPD.


DCPD should be used in conjunction with baking soda and other faster acting leavening acids. If additional acid is needed to fully neutralize sodium bicarbonate in a product, DCPD can be used. DCPD can be used when a cracked surface on the baked good is desired.