Masa flour is made from ground corn.

Masa

Also known as Corn Flour


What is Masa?

Masa is a dough made from ground corn that has been cooked in alkali. The wet masa dough is dried and ground, resulting in corn masa flour or masa harina.

Masa is a staple food for many Latin Americans including individuals of Mexican and Central American descent in the United States. It can be used to make tortillas, tortilla chips, tamales, taco shells, and corn chips.1

Nutrition

Masa is nixtamilized maize. Compared to other  grains, masa has an increased bioavailability of niacin improved protein quality, increased calcium levels, and reduced mycotoxins content.2

How masa works

Function of lime (alkaline)

  • Alkaline aids in the dissolution of cell walls. It helps loosen the pericarp and facilitate its removal, which makes the production of a dough possible.3 A mixture of  untreated maize flour with water results in porridge instead of a dough.
  • Gelatinization of starch during alkaline cooking and steeping of corn is inhibited by the amylose-calcium interaction, this avoids sticky dough and helps keep  the starch crystallinity.3 This  also makes the final product crispy.

Function of gums4

  • Water retention capability in masa is critical to make good quality tortillas, which are soft and can be rolled into a “taco” form without damage. Commercially, corn masa flour is formulated with gums and preservatives to retain water and improve physicochemical properties and textural characteristics. The gums increase the  viscosity of masa. The optimum gum level is 0.5% (w/w) when producing corn masa flour.

Influence of oil5

  • Autoxidation of oil causes off-flavors and off-odors of dry corn masa flours, which reduce consumer acceptability of the corn tortillas.
  • The absence of oil didn’t affect dough stickiness or tortilla rollability. Low content of oil adversely and significantly affected the typical corn tortilla flavor. The presence of oil significantly improved tortilla firmness and chewiness.

Commercial Production

There are several stages for corn masa flour production using nixtamalization process, the traditional method used.2 First, dried maize is soaked in a solution of water with lime, often with ashes mixed in. The grain is then cooked, steeped, drained, and rinsed multiple times. After which, the  grain is then ground to make masa. Masa can be further dried into masa flour.

Masa can also be produced from an extruder.6 Dry, raw corn kernels are first ground in a cereal grinder. The resulting meal is then combined with calcium hydroxide in...


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