6 03, 2017

Are Your Cookies in Compliance? Kill Step Validation for Baked Goods

Are you a baker who makes their bread and butter producing cookies? The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Preventative Controls for Human Food requires commercial bakeries to provide validation of process controls such as thermal kill steps.1 Compliance dates for some businesses began in September of 2016. The good news is a new [...]

7 03, 2016

Precision Baking

Time and time again, I have been consulting with a bakery on their product issues, and this issue would surface. What is it? Would you take a stab at it? It’s the oven. Most of the time, ovens are set to time, temperature and color. Some bakeries measure the exit temperatures, but some don’t. "Why [...]

25 01, 2016

Relative Humidity

The relative humidity impacts the quality and texture of baked goods. Relative Humidity Also Known As Dew Point, Moist Air, Hygrometer, Psychrometric Chart What is Relative Humidity? Relative humidity (RH) is a measure of how much water vapor is in the air, usually expressed as a percentage. It is the [...]

14 01, 2016


Resilience What is resilience? Resilience is defined as the ability of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically and to release that energy upon unloading.1 Bread’s resilience is its ability to spring back, returning to its original shape when subjected to a compressing force.2,3,4 Resilience is a key parameter [...]

7 06, 2015

Bread Cooling

Bread Cooling What is Bread Cooling? Bread cooling is a crucial step in bread production. The main goal is to decrease the internal temperature of the baked bread from 93–97°C (200–208°F), at depanning or coming out of the oven, to 32–43°C (90–110°F). This step allows the finished product to achieve optimum keeping [...]

7 06, 2015

Gluten Hydration

Gluten Hydration What is Gluten Hydration? Gluten hydration is an essential step in baking because it helps activate wheat gluten proteins. In water, gliadin and glutenin proteins interact to establish bonds and form small protein strands. This is the basis for how a cohesive viscoelastic gluten matrix is developed. It's essential for retaining [...]

7 06, 2015

Clean In Place (CIP)

Clean-in-Place (CIP) What is Clean-In-Place? Clean-in-place (CIP) is a cleaning method widely used in the food, dairy, pharmaceutical, brewing and winemaking industries that require the highest standards of plant hygiene. CIP implies cleaning equipment and its parts without disassembling them. CIP methods can include: Soaking/agitation systems Solvent refluxing High-impact spray-cleaning Turbulent flow [...]

7 06, 2015


Mixing What is Mixing? Mixing is one of the most critical and important operations in a bakery. The mixing stage allows “inert” dry and liquid ingredients to create a very reactive and dynamic system that can be then processed and transformed into value-added products. Foams, cake batter emulsions, colloidal suspensions and doughs [...]

7 06, 2015

Intermediate Proofing

Intermediate Proofing What is Intermediate Proofing? Intermediate proofing is a short rest period between dough-dividing and the final sheeting/ moulding.1 The length is dependent upon the ability of the dough to relax after dividing. This step ensures that the dough will not be tight and rubbery, and will easily go through the [...]


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