The Science of Mixing

Mixing dough

By Richard Junge
BAKERpedia put together the sold out teaching seminar “The Science of Mixing,” held at the Wheat Marketing Center, Portland OR. It talked about the fundamentals of hydration, mixing, and the requirements for a good mix. Bakery Concepts President Ken Schwenger, who provides innovative equipment for the Baking and Food Industries, demonstrated the Rapidojet, Model RJ1000.

This was done at the Wheat Marketing Center lab, with highly skilled cereal scientists, Ken demonstrated the continuous pre-hydration of flour and water – high-pressure water hitting free falling particles of flour through the Rapidojet mixing chamber.

Rapidojet mixing

Rapidojet mixing

The Science of Rapidojet Mixing

Utilizing a standardized straight dough method, a comparison was made against conventional spiral mixing vs. Rapidojet (pre-hydration of flour and water) with the balance of ingredients added into the spiral mixer.  The control and test dough were mixed to an “optimum mix point” for comparison.

Compared to the control mixed dough, the Rapidojet (flour/water hydration step), demonstrated that water absorption, on a flour basis, could be increased by 7%, yielding similar dough rheology, with less spiral mix requirement (time and energy) and yielded improved bread characteristics, i.e., texture, flavor and appearance (see picture below)

Bread from Rapidojet

Rapidojet improved volume at the same absorption.

The Rapidojet technology is multifaceted with many potential applications including grain washing (removal of contaminants) as well as liquid sponge production, gluten, starch and bran hydration, and batters. Your limitation is only your imagination.  The Rapidojet opens a new chapter—yet to be written—for the science of hydration and the benefits offered to the baking industry.


About the Author:

Richard Junge
For the past 11 years, Mr. Junge led the bakery product category in Menu Innovation for McDonalds Corporation A graduate from Kansas State University with a MS in Grain Science. Raised in a family wholesale baking business that manufactured bakery products for 109 years, Mr. Junge has spent the last 36 years directing applied research applications in industry leading product development groups. His main focus throughout his career has been bakery new product innovation in the key markets for Grocery Products and Food Service. His experiences include directing product development groups at Continental Baking, Pillsbury, Schwan’s and DuPont/Solae.


  1. Ken Schwenger
    Ken Schwenger May 19, 2016 at 1:23 pm - Reply

    Thanks very much to Dr. Carson of BAKERpedia, Dr. Hou of The Wheat Marketing Center and Richard Junge for all of your assistance with this effort. A very bright light has just been shown onto the science and practice of Hydration & Mixing. I heard a few times during the event that, “The book now needs to be re-written”. Our industry once demanded an ROI of 3 years or less. Now, 18 months is desired. What will your ROI be if you can raise your total yield by 5%, cut your yeast and VWG and fermentation time by 25% while reducing mix time by 50%?
    Given the tremendous success of this first Seminar, we envision doing this again. Please let us know if you have specific requests or questions. And, go to our website to see lots of videos from the Seminar.
    Happy Baking!

  2. John Squire May 19, 2016 at 1:57 pm - Reply

    I have worked with the RapidoJet and find it has some positive benefits. What would be interesting would be to see how the dough comes out in an industrial application using a RapidoJet and horizontal mixer against a Wendel mixer with or without the RapidoJet. I have mixed many products in a Wendel with superior hydration and reduced mixing times compared to a horizontal mixer or spiral but never tried a Wendel against a horizontal and RapidoJet. We normally got 2-6% more water hydrated using a Wendel – wonder what a Wendel and RapidoJet would do?

  3. Ken Schwenger
    Ken Schwenger May 31, 2016 at 5:53 pm - Reply

    Very interesting question, John;
    By the way, good to run into you again. The reason that a 5% – 8% higher hydration level MUST be used when pre-hydrating Ingredient Flour via Rapidojet is that, we create a much more homogeneous bond between the drys and the liquids. Thus, much less “free water”. I certainly appreciate the benefits of the Wendel style Mixer. The Koenig Twin Twist is very similar. If you were to pre-hydrate 100% of the Ingredient Flour to a Wendel Mixing bowl and then add the Minors and Micros, your mix time would drop by more than 50% AND your hydration level would have to be increased by at least the normal 5% – 8%. Most likely more water in order to get the same dough feel and machinability. Also, no more ice if you use chilled water and about 25% less yeast and conditioner because of the lack of mix time and stress on the gluten structure. You can see Lots of our videos on YouTube or our website.

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