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    • Profile PhotoMark Floerke
      Keymaster
      @independant-consultant
      Post count: 223

      Hello Community:
      We have received an inquiry about processing and ingredient evaluation. Please contribute your suggestions.
      I will cross-post this to other product forums as well. (cakes and cookies)

      Hi Dr Lin,
      I am “saba iqbal” I am doing work on wheat flour optimization
      I need to learn that what are the key parameters of bread, cookies, cake and flat bread to be optimized
      Lets suppose I add some enzyme or additive to optimize my bread loaf volume then how can I decide that bread loaf volume needs to be optimized and if it needs to be optimized how can I decide how much amount of additive should be added into
      So I need some standard physicochemical, rheological, and baking properties of bread, cookies, cake and flat bread
      I also need the detailed sensory sheet of the mentioned baked items
      I will be grateful to u. waiting for you reply. Thanks and regards
      SabaIqbal

    • Profile PhotoZziwa
      Participant
      @kamos-bakehouse-ltd
      Post count: 49

      THIS QUESTION IS VERY BROAD AND ITS DEMANDING SO ITS LIKE HOLDING A BAKE SHOP IN ONE HAND
      TO optimize wheat usage i think you need to understand wheat flour,and the wheat grain and the process through which its produced and its types then when you put this knowledge all in place you will be in position to relate its usage with the minimum basic requirements of the product you want to bake so you should be well equipped with basics of production of those specific products

      The performance of the wheat flour is always i identified by the baker himself by touch and sight of the dough and remember that its also influenced by the mixing technique and the type of product to be produced then for me in the bakeshops attended adjustments of additives in the dough were try and error method until perfection (dosage is always given by the manufacturer but again there are very many things that affect ingredient variations from bakeshop to bakeshop for example altitude,temperature ,PH of the water and its hardness,then experience of the baker etc) so for me i think its up-to the baker to make adjustments until a desired effect is got.

      the third part is not clear
      sensory matrix is wide i cant explain

    • Profile PhotoSaba
      Participant
      @saba
      Post count: 8

      Thanks Zziwa
      I want to learn that which sensory attributes of bread, cakes and biscuits are the most important and considerable for making the sensory sheet.
      Kindly also shed some light on to which rheological parameters lije water absorption are directly related with baking parameters like loaf volume, crumb softness etc

    • Lin Carson, PhD
      Keymaster
      @lin-carson
      Post count: 41

      I’ll let someone else chip in on the rheological characteristics. I can detail the sensory part a little more here. There are quantitative and qualitative sensory methods. Most applicable to bakers are qualitative methods, because quantitative methods require hundreds of responses and a qualified sensory scientist to run those tests. If you pull a qualitative panel together, you have to train them before they score anything. Training can take up to 3 months, due to everyone’s schedule (I assume you pull in office staff for this). For bakery, you train for all the sensory attributes: Aroma, taste and texture. Here are some for bakery products, (not a complete list of) aroma attributes: Yeasty, grainy, earthy, grassy, caramelized, burnt, vanilla (the more your descriptors, the more you capture your product’s attributes, but also the more you have to train your panel). For taste attribute: Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and Umami. For texture attributes: firmness, springiness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, resilience and waxy may be a good start. These are universal terms and can be used widely across all bakery products. You can rate each on a scale of 1 to 10, and have a reference sample for each attribute for both ends of the scale. This is how I used to train sensory panels. And I believe if you are serious on this form of qualitative sensory analysis, contact universities like Cornell, Michigan State, Ohio State, Kansas State, Purdue with strong food science programs and work with their sensory specialists.

      • Profile PhotoSaba
        Participant
        @saba
        Post count: 8

        Great hearing detail explanation from you
        Thank you very much for guidance.

    • Profile PhotoSaba
      Participant
      @saba
      Post count: 8

      Thanks Dr Lin Carson for your support and help
      Can you provide me any email so that i can contact the sensory specialist

    • Profile PhotoZziwa
      Participant
      @kamos-bakehouse-ltd
      Post count: 49

      let us start with bread and specifically volume
      1 hydration :the amount of water available for glutenin to form the gluten structure poor hydration rates can result in poor bread volume as over hydration can weaken the gluten structure and its air retention properties .then under hydration leads to a stiff dough with poor dough properties especially extensibility and elasticity therefore dough volume will be greatly affected.

      2 fermentation and mixing technique:in the chorelywood method mixing is done at high speed and gluten development is accomplished without fermentation therefore fermentation will just damage it.then with the short,improved fermentation is important to develop the gluten structure and improve its gas retention properties then intensive is almost like the former little fermentation or no fermentation is required because the gluten structure is fully developed then over mixing,under mixing,over fermentation,and under fermentation have the same negative effect

      3 wheat flour (strong and the weak flours) the type is determined by the quantity and quality of the gluten proteins and we would expect better bread volume in strong flour and vice versa. then with the whole wheat flour contains bran so it also affects the gluten structure and its dough gas retention properties

      4 proofing: over proofing can cause can weaken thee gluten structure due to over fermentation and under proofing has this direct effect on bread volume like little volume oven spring aint so much effective in leavening bread because there is this shrink after baking so it has that direct impact.

      5 baking: contributes to leavening of bread during the oven spring so we will take it as being good for the volume of bread

      6 scaling; this is also important in that you must be cautious of the proportions of some ingredients for example sugar fat they also have impact on gluten development sugar being hygroscopic it suffocates the gluten proteins from the water and fat interferes with the uncoiling of the gluten strands

      just to mention defatted soy flour gives bread a bigger structure than expected so you get a smaller portion of the dough and then you get bigger bread though am not sure of the science behind
      perhaps its all i cAN say for volume and we discuss each in particular

    • Profile PhotoMark Floerke
      Keymaster
      @independant-consultant
      Post count: 223

      Hello Saba,
      To add to the excellent responses posted already I would like to offer my comments.
      Dr. Lin has already summarized sensory for you. I would add that to get in to this in detail can be a very costly exercise. In many situations you may be able to accomplish some less complex training with office staff, and do triangle tests, or JAR. A triangle test utilizes a specific set of identification numbers for each sample to reduce psychological bias. Usually 2 samples are the same product, and 1 is different. The results will indicate if the sensory group can discern the difference. JAR is a scale of “liking” – Just About Right – usually on a scale of 1 to 5, given specific descriptors.
      For other evaluations there is lab equipment and methods available to evaluate. Cereals and Grains Association (formerly AACC) provide some very specific evaluation methods for different wheat flour types and applications. Loaf volume is today still often measured via rapeseed volume displacement, as a very cost effective method. Laser scanning equipment is much more precise and provides additional information and images that might not otherwise be obtained, 3D image, loaf and slice symmetry, calculations of ml per 100g flour, etc. A texture analyzer is used to evaluate softness of the crumb through a loaf. Once the breads have cooled they are sliced on a bread slicer and every 2 slices a place on the texture analyzer together to measure the firmness. Most commonly this is performed 1 day post bake 3 days post bake and 7 days post bake. Multiple loaves need to be produced under the same conditions to accommodate the quantity needed for evaluation. I have found a minimum of 6 loaves per condition or treatment are needed, to evaluate 2 loaves each day. For texture analysis this typically provides averages from 12 tests per condition per day.
      For evaluating dough rheology a combination of methods are used. No single method is the be all or end all, and even together there is often some interpretation disagreement. Wheat flour is so dependent on nature and the fickle changes in weather and other growing conditions. I will insert some links here to BAKERpedia articles on these, as well as one equipment supplier.
      Mixograph: BAKERpedia Mixograph Info
      Farinograph: Bakerpedia Farinograph Info
      Amylograph: Brabender Amylograph
      This discusses bread, and some different characteristics apply to cakes and cookies, which I will comment on in the other cross posted threads for this query.
      Saba; please do continue to post specifics to your questions, and we can all learn more detail together. Thanks.

    • Lin Carson, PhD
      Keymaster
      @lin-carson
      Post count: 41

      Hi @Saba, you can reach the sensory scientist at [email protected]. Her name is Myrna Fossum. I don’t know if she’s accepting new clients, but she’s good at putting descriptive panels together. I welcome anyone else to post their contacts for a sensory scientist.

    • Profile PhotoSaba
      Participant
      @saba
      Post count: 8

      Thanks Dr Lin Carson

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