What are Succinylated Monoglycerides ?
Succinylated Monoglycerides, or SMG, is an emulsifying agent, dough strengthener, and crumb softener.
Where does it come from ?
It is from the fatty acid ester of glycerol that is found in plant oils and animal fats. SMG is produced by a reaction between distilled monoglycerides and succinic anhydride. The reaction creates an interaction with flour proteins.1 SMG then becomes active when it interacts with emulsifying agents. It’s HLB value is 5.3 therefore it is more lipophilic in nature2. SMG is tolerant to mechanical handling, as well as flour variability.3
SMG is sold commercially as a white powder. It is one of the more highly-functional dough strengtheners, often used in shortenings and breads. It is greatly effective as a dough conditioner via enhancing crumb softening while increasing volume and shelf life4. It is difficult to use in dough however, due to its waxy texture. Melt SMG for best blending results.
The FDA allows the use of SMG as long as it consists of mono and diglycerides succinylated by glycerolysis of edible fats and oils, or by direct esterification of glycerol and edible fat-forming fatty acids, or a mixture of the two. It can be used as an emulsifier in liquid and plastic shortenings, as long as the level is under 3 percent by weight, or as a dough conditioner with levels under 0.5 percent by weight of the used flour. For a full list of requirements, visit fda.gov.
1. Van Lonkhuysen, H. and Blankestijn, J. (1974), Interaction of Monoglycerides with Starches. Starch/Stärke, 26: 337–342. doi: 10.1002/star.19740261005
2. Stauffer, C.E. 2005. Emulsifiers for the food industry. Chpt. 8 in Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, ed. F. Shahidi, pp. 229-267. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken.
3. O’Brien, Richard D. Fats and Oils Formulating and Processing for Applications: Formulating and Processing for Applications. Third ed. N.p.: CRC, 2009. 316. Print.
4. Hasenhuettl, Gerard L., and Richard W. Hartel. Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1997.