Dough Conditioner Ingredients2018-12-10T05:15:18+00:00

Dough conditioner ingredients improve flour baking performance and produce high-quality baked goods with extended shelf-life.

Dough Conditioner Ingredients


What are Dough Conditioner Ingredients?

Dough conditioners are natural or chemical-origin ingredients that are used in baking formulations. They can improve flour baking performance and produce high-quality baked goods with extended shelf-life while maintaining consistent production processes.

The major groups of dough conditioning ingredients are:

  • Enzymes
  • Emulsifiers (dough strengtheners and crumb softeners)
  • Oxidizing agents
  • Reducing agents

Origin

Dough conditioning ingredients have been available to the food industry for decades. They were originally introduced to mitigate variations in flour and yeast quality and tight production schedules.

Back in the ‘50s, baking processes relied exclusively on the quality and quantity of gluten-forming proteins of wheat flours to produce baked goods. Consistency on a day-to-day and batch to batch basis was more than a challenge due to wheat crop changeover and variations in wheat blends from mills, among other factors.

Function

The following table summarizes the function of  major dough conditioning ingredients:1,2,3

Group Ingredient Mechanism and effect
Enzymes
  • Hydrolases (amylases, xylanases, lipases, proteases, cellulases)
  • Oxidases (glucose oxidase, hexose oxidase, lipoxygenase)
  • Transferases (transglutaminase)
  • Through breakdown of starch, they can increase the content of fermentable sugars (enhance yeast survival and activity).
  • Through breakdown of fats, they create natural emulsifiers that improve product texture and dough machinability.
  • Through breakdown of proteins, they weaken the gluten network aiding in extensibility and machining.
  • Increase/decrease dough elasticity/extensibility.
  • Through breakdown of non-starch polysaccharides, they change dough consistency (water redistribution).
  • Reduce stickiness of dough through water redistribution and drying effect.
  • Cross-linking of amino acids to promote protein aggregation and provide strength to dough.
  • Modify the starch structure to slow down staling and increase crumb freshness and softness.
  • Increase/reduce gas retention.
  • Increase/reduce water absorption capacity.
Emulsifiers – dough strengtheners
  • Polysorbate 60
  • DATEM
  • Ethoxylated monoglycerides
  • Succinylated monoglycerides
  • Calcium stearoyl lactylate (CSL)
  • Sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL)
  • Surface active agents that promote gluten aggregation by creating intermolecular interactions with proteins.
  • Improve mixing tolerance, increase elasticity and enhance gas retention.
Emulsifiers – crumb softeners
  • Mono-glycerides
  • DATEM
  • Calcium stearoyl lactylate (CSL)
  • Sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL)
  • Interaction at the surface of the starch granule causing less swelling and leaching of amylose resulting in less starch retrogradation.
Oxidizing agents
  • Ascorbic acid
  • Azodicarbonamide (ADA)
  • Potassium iodate
  • Calcium peroxide
  • Potassium bromate
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Benzoyl peroxide
  • By forming disulphide bonds between gluten-forming proteins, increase dough mixing tolerance.
  • Improve gas retention.
  • Change dough consistency through water redistribution.
  • Decrease dough sheetability.
  • Increase dough elasticity (increase dough strength through protein aggregation).
  • Reduce stickiness of dough through water management and drying effect.
Reducing agents
  • L-cysteine
  • Glutathione
  • Inactivated yeast
  • Sodium bisulphite
  • Sodium metabisulphite
  • By breaking disulphide bonds between gluten-forming proteins, reduce dough mix time to obtain desired extensibility (decrease dough strength through protein de-polymerization).
  • Increase pan flow.
  • Affect dough gas retention.
  • Change dough consistency through water redistribution.
  • Increase dough sheetability.
  • Increase dough extensibility.

 

Application

Dough conditioning ingredients are considered additives; they are often used to compensate for inadequacies in baking formulations and processing issues. Aspects such as consumer perception, clean label trends, cost and regulatory limits are factors of immense importance when incorporating them into baked products.

Process parameters such as mixing tolerance/stability, water absorption capacity, gassing power (i.e. fermentation capacity), gas retention and dough rheology can be modified by dough conditioners.

Among all available dough conditioners, enzymes are favored in clean label applications. However, issues such as purity (side reactions and secondary activity) and ensuring complete inactivation during baking can be critical for bakeries. When supplying enzymes, it is a good practice to conduct baking tests and lab analysis to ensure optimum results.

FDA regulation

Group Considerations4,5
Enzymes According to 21 CFR Part 184 (Direct Food Substances Affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe), these ingredients can be used in food in amounts sufficient for
the purpose, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practices.
Emulsifiers – Dough strengtheners According to 21 CFR Parts 172, 182 and 184, some are limited only by good manufacturing practices; others are allowed at levels required to produce the intended effect. Some may also have specified limits on their use.
Emulsifiers – Crumb softeners
Oxidizing agents According to 21 CFR Parts 170, 182 and 184, most oxidizing agents have limits on their use in food products.
Reducing agents According to 21 CFR Parts 170, 182 and 184, most reducing agents are GRAS given their natural origin.

 

References

  1. Van Oort, M. “Enzymes in Bread Making.” Enzymes in Food Technology, 2nd edition, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010, pp. 103–143.
  2. Smith, J., and Hong-Shum, L. Food Additives Data Book, 2nd edition, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2011.
  3. Stauffer, C.E. “Bakery Products.” Emulsifiers, Eagan Press Handbook Series, AACC International, Inc., 1991, pp. 47–66.
  4. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “21 CFR 182 – Direct Food Substances Affirmed As Generally Recognized As Safe.” 1 Apr. 2017, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182. Accessed 2 December 2018.
  5. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “21 CFR 184 – Direct Food Substances Affirmed As Generally Recognized As Safe.” 1 Apr. 2017, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=184. Accessed 2 December 2018.

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