Why You Need to Control Your Oven Temperature

Why you need to control your oven temperature.

I don’t need to tell you that oven temperature is important. It’s how chemical reactions take place that transform your product. That’s why temperature needs so much attention—so many things are happening at once!

Oven Temperature has a key roll in 3 areas: 

Development: 

  • Killing of yeast cells: 50–60°C (122–140°F)
  • Maximum enzymatic activity: 60°C (140°F).
  • Start of starch gelatinization: 55–65°C (130–150°F)
  • Denaturation of gluten proteins at 50°C (122°F) and coagulation at 70–80°C (160–180°F).
  • Start of dough-crumb transition process:  85°C (185°F)
  • Inactivation of naturally-occurring and added enzymes inside the dough: 70–85°C (160–185°F).

Drying:

  • Water molecules at the dough surface absorb latent heat and start to evaporate: 200–300°C (390–570°F)

Color formation: 

  • Maillard browning: 105°C (220°F)
  • Sugars caramelize: 160°C (320°F)

That’s why you need to track and monitor how your product is changing in the oven, and adjust the temperature accordingly.

How is oven temperature controlled?

Automatically

    1. A temperature sensor (thermocouple probe) senses, measures, and transmits the temperature (controlled variable) of the air inside the baking chamber.
    2. As the demand for hot air increases or decreases (e.g., in moments when the load of the oven increases, oven temperature goes down; fuel combustion must then increase to return oven temperature to its set point).
    3. A change in oven temperature is sensed and converted to an electrical signal, amplified, and sent to a controller that evaluates the signal and sends a correction signal to an actuator.
    4. The actuator (gas valve) opens or closes to adjust the flow rate of the air and fuel (carbureted mixture) in the burner (manipulated variables) to keep flame intensity such that it can consistently deliver the power required. In this way, the temperature of the baking chamber is returned to its predetermined value.

Manually

  1. Dough pieces are loaded into the oven, where heat from the energy sources is used to bring the products to the required temperature in order for them to cook and dry.
  2. A thermometer is used to measure the temperature of the product (the measured variable). The temperature is observed by an operator who adjusts the flow of air and gas in the burner (the manipulated variables) to keep the baking chamber at the constant set temperature.
2018-12-10T05:21:26+00:00

About the Author:

Lin Carson, PhD
Dr. Lin Carson’s love affair with baking started over 25 years ago when she earned her BSc degree in Food Science & Technology at the Ohio State University. She went on to earn her MSc then PhD from the Department of Grain Science at Kansas State University. Seeing that technical information was not freely shared in the baking industry, Dr. Carson decided to launch BAKERpedia to cover this gap. Today, as the world’s only FREE and comprehensive online technical resource for the commercial baking industry, BAKERpedia is used by over half a million commercial bakers, ingredient sellers, equipment suppliers and baking entrepreneurs annually. You can catch Dr. Carson regularly on the BAKED In Science podcast solving baking problems or talking about her obsession with bread on the Pitching a Loaf podcast.

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